Julius Caesar

He was born on 13 July 100BC into a Patrician family. At the age of sixteen he became head of the family following his fathers death.

Later he fell out with the Roman Leader Sulla and joined the army.

He returned to Rome following the death of Sulla in 78BC.

He was well educated, worked as a lawyer and was a great public speaker.

In 72BC he was elected Military Tribune.

In 59BC he became joint Consul of Rome alongside Marcus Bibulus. He served in this position for one year and then became Governor of Gaul (France). At this time he ruled Rome alongside Pompey Magnus and Crassus (Triumvirate) even though he travelled to Gaul.

He did not return to Rome for nine years. He spent this time conquering much of what is now modern day Europe.

In 54BC Crassus died in Battle.

Pompey was married to Caesar’s daughter Julia who died in childbirth. There was very little to keep Caesar and Pompey as friends following this and their relationship became strained.

Caesar became a powerful Military General who was well supported by the people of Rome.

In 51BC with the conquest of Gaul completed, Caesar wished to run for Consul of Rome.

Caesar was ordered by the Senate to give up control of the Military, but he refused.

Pompey and Caesar could not agree and this caused a public split between them. Neither would give in as they would lose honour and dignity. They also did not want to lose power.

Caesar marched on Rome with his army. By crossing the Rubicon River, he had declared war. He stated, as he crossed the river ‘The die is cast’.

Caesar returned to Rome in 49BC a Military hero; the people loved him. At this time, Pompey had already retreated from the city. Caesar spent the next eighteen months in pursuit of Pompey as he wished to rule Rome alone. He chased Pompey to Egypt, but was to find that the young Pharoah of Egypt, Ptolomy VIII had arranged for Pompey to be killed. Caesar was presented with Pompeys head as a gift.

Caesar once again returned to Rome in 46BC and became a very powerful man. He had absolute power over the Senate and was named by them as a Dictator.

Although he was loved by the people, many within the Senate turned against him as they felt he was too powerful, and they plotted to kill him. Included in this were Cato the Younger and Cicero.

On 15 March 44BC, Caesar on entering the Senate was set upon by a number of Senators. He was stabbed over twenty times, finally to his death. The main instigators of this were Brutus and Cassius.

Julius Caesar died on 15 March 44BC (Ides of March) and was proclaimed ‘a God’ after his death.

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