There were both indoor and outdoor shoes. These were made of leather, with the cheapest of leather being used for plebeians and slaves shoes, although many slaves went barefoot.
Wealthier Romans often used pigskin and sheepskin.
The leather was naturally brown, but could also be dyed. This was done to represent rank and status.
Patrician Romans (Ruling families) often wore red shoes.
Outdoor shoes (Calcei)
These would have many leather straps that would be wound close together to cover the feet and toes. They could be made to ankle height, but could also be made to reach the calf and knees.
These were mainly for indoor wear and had fewer leather straps. These were made to be open toed.
Women’s shoes could also have cork soles to help keep the feet warm. They were often coloured in green or white and had ornaments attached to them.