Roman Gods

jupiter
Jupiter

King of the Gods, and God of the Sky and Thunder.

He was the son of Saturn and the brother of Neptune and Pluto. His weapon was a thunderbolt and his sacred messenger was an eagle, which became the main symbol of the roman army.

juno
Juno

Queen of the Gods and wife of Jupiter.

She was also the Goddess of Marriage, Women and Fertility. Her symbol was the peacock.

neptune
Neptune

Prime God, Ruler of the Sea and Protector of Ships. He was also worshipped as a God of Horses. He ruled along with his brothers Jupiter and Pluto over heaven, the earth and the underworld.

pluto
Pluto

God of Death.

When someone died, they had to cross the river of the dead (styx). They were always buried with a coin to pay the ferryman for the crossing.

mars
Mars

God of War and second in importance only to Jupiter. He was the most prominent of the Military Gods worshipped in the roman army and patron of the roman legions. He was also the father of Romulus and Remus.

venus
Venus

Goddess of Love, Beauty and Romance.

Julius Caesar claimed Venus as his ancestor. She is central to many religious festivals and was well thought of in roman religion.

apollo
Apollo

God of the Sun. Also God of Music, Truth and Prophecy.

diana
Diana

Goddess of the Moon and the twin sister of Apollo. She was also the Goddess of Hunting and is shown carrying her bow and arrows. She had the power to talk to animals and tell them what to do.

cupid
Cupid

God of Love, Attraction and Affection.

He was the son of Venus and is portrayed as having wings and carrying a bow and arrow. This is where the saying ‘shot by cupid’s arrow’ comes from.

mercury
Mercury

Messenger of the Gods, Patron God of Financial Gain, Commerce, Messages and Communication and also God of Luck, Trickery and Thieves. He is the son of Jupiter and the Guide of Souls to the Underworld.

minerva
Minerva

Goddess of Wisdom and also of Arts and Crafts.

She was the daughter of Jupiter and her symbol is an owl, which is why she is connected to wisdom.

ceres
Ceres

Earth Goddess and also Goddess of Agriculture, grain and crops.

She is shown carrying a grain bundle and was the central God in Rome’s plebian triad.

ceres
Proserpina

Goddess of the Underworld.

She was abducted by the God of the Underworld and then rescued by her mother Ceres.

vulcan
Vulcan

The God of Fire and the Smith God.

He made Jupiter’s thunderbolts. He worked from the volcano Etna, where the fire created the heat for his forge. The volcano would erupt if he stoked his furnace too hard.

bacchus
Bacchus

God of Wine and also God of Agriculture.

He was the son of Jupiter and carried a staff of fennel topped with a pine cone.

saturn
Saturn

God of Time and named ‘Old Father Time’.

His reign was depicted as a ‘Golden Age of Plenty and Peace’. His children were Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto which represent Air, Water and Death. The three things that time cannot kill.

vesta
Vesta

Goddess of the Home.

She is symbolised by the sacred fire that burned at her hearth. The flame should never go out; if it did, disaster would fall on Rome.

janus
Janus

God of Beginnings and Transitions (gates, doors, doorways, passages and endings).

Believed to have two doors; one facing the past and one looking to the future. The doors would be open in times of war and closed in times of peace.

flora
Flora

Goddess of Flowers and the Season of Spring; also Goddess of Fertility and Youth.

bellona
Bellona

Goddess of War.

She was the twin sister of Mars and is seen wearing a helmet and carrying a sword or shield.

Terra-Mater

Goddess of the Earth ‘Earth Mother’.

Maia

Goddess of Growth.

Identified with earth (terra).

Caelus

Primal God of the Sky.

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