FF – Philip II of Spain

21 May 1527: Born in Valladolid, Spain to parents Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Isabella of Portugal.

At birth, he became Prince Philip of Asturias.

1540: Became Duke of Milan.

1543: Given the regency of Spain.

1543: Married Princess Maria of Portugal.

8 July 1545: Maria of Portugal gave birth to a son Don Carlos. She died shortly after the birth.

25 July 1554: Married Queen Mary I of England at Winchester Cathedral.

1554: Took the throne of Naples and Sicily after his father Charles V abdicated.

1555: Became Lord of all the provinces of the Netherlands.

January 1556: Crowned King of Spain after his father Charles V abdicated.

5 February 1556: Philip and Henry II of France signed the Truce of Vaucelles.

1557: Declared bankrupt.

10 August 1557: Formed an alliance with England and defeated France at the Battle of St Quentin.

13 July 1558: Defeated the French at the Battle of Gravelines.

17 November 1558: Mary I died, childless.

3 April 1559: Signed the Peace of Cateau-Cambresis with Henry II of France, securing Spanish control of Piedmont, Savoy, Corsica, and the Republic of Genoa.

January 1560: Married Elisabeth of Valois, daughter of Henry II of France. The marriage produced two daughters, Isabella Clara Eugenia born 12 August 1566, and Catherine Michelle born 10 October 1567.

1560: Declared bankrupt for a second time. Many more would follow.

1567: Sent the Spanish army to overthrow the protestant uprising in the Netherlands.

January 1567: Ordered the persecution of Christian Moors in Spain.

1568: Philip imprisoned his son Don Carlos, who later died while imprisoned.

3 October 1568: Elisabeth of Valois died.

1569: Formed Inquisition in South America.

1569: Following the Morisco Revolt in Granada, Philip expelled the Moriscos from Granada and dispersed them through the Kingdom of Castile.

1570: Married Anne of Austria, daughter of Maximilian II by proxy. The marriage produced five children, but only one survived to adulthood, Philip born 3 April 1578, the future Philip III of Spain.

7 October 1571: Victory for Spain as part of the Holy League over the Ottoman Turks navy at the Battle of Lepanto.

26 October 1580: Anna of Austria dies.

1581: Becomes King of Portugal.

1585: Signed Peace Treaty with the Ottoman Empire.

1587: Obtains agreement from Pope Sextus V to invade England as a Catholic Crusade.

1588: Launches the Spanish Armada, a fleet of over 130 ships, to escort an army from Flanders to invade England, but defeated by the English navy.

1591 – 1592: Philip sent forces to quell the Aragonese Rebellion.

1595 – 1598: Involved with the French Religious wars against the Huguenots (Reformed Protestants) of France.

13 September 1598: Died and is buried at El Escorial Royal Palace, near Madrid, Spain.

Philip II was known as ‘Philip the Prudent’ and ruled during a period known as the ‘Spanish Golden Age’.

He inherited a kingdom heavily in debt, but during his reign, he built Spain up to the peak of its power, but he still left a kingdom heavy in financial debt.

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